10:23 Challenge 1984 Aesthetics Alastair Reynolds Alban Berg Albert Uderzo Alexander Nehamas Antikythera Arrugas Art Asterios Polyp Asterix Babylon 5 Bernd and Hilla Becher Bible Bill Viola Brad DeLong Bruce Sterling Buddhism Carl Sagan Center for Inquiry Charles and Ray Eames Charles Burns Charles Yu Cheryl Morgan Chris Mooney Chris Ware Círculo Escéptico Clarkesworld Comics Committee for Skeptical Inquiry Cristóbal Vila Cyberpunk Dan Nadel Darick Robertson Dario Robleto Darryl Cunningham David Mazzucchelli David O'Reilly Dmitri Shostakovich Ed Docx Einstein on the Beach Engaget Eric Brown Errol Morris Etérea Studios Fantasy Fractals Frank Stockton Frankenstein Free Will Gary Wolfe Greece Hans Rosling Harry Frankfurt Hergé Hiraki Sawa Hiroshi Sugimoto Humor Ian Bertram Iliad Jaq Chartier Jason Yungbluth Jennifer Bartlett John Baldessari John Martz John Scalzi John Sculley Jorge Luis Borges Jose Pérez Joseph Lambert Joyce Carol Oates Jules Feiffer Julia Galef Justin Whitaker Karl Stevens Kasimir Malevich Ken Dahl Komar & Melamid Language Lord of the Rings Luis Alfonso Gámez Macintosh Marcel Duchamp Margaret Atwood Mary Shelley Massimo Pigliucci Math Maurizio Cattelan Michael Benson MoCCA Modern Times Museums Nancy Fulda Nancy Kress Neil Gaiman Neil Tyson NK Jemisin NYRSF Optical Illusion Orson Scott Card Paco Roca Pascal Girard Paul Hornschemeier Paul Kurtz Pepo Pérez Phil Moriarty Philip Glass Philosophy physics Plato Podcast Post-modernism Quay Brothers Rage Comics Ray Bradbury Realism Religion Rene Goscinny Richard Dawkins Richard Feynman Robert Rauschenberg Robert Wilson Roger Ebert Sam Sykes Samuel R. Delany Science Science Fiction Sean Carroll Secular Buddhist Association Shaun Tan Sixty Simbols Skepticism SMBC Star Wars Statistics Steampunk Steve Jobs Steven Pinker subBlue Tara Donovan Tatiana Plakhova The New Yorker Theodore Sturgeon Tim Minchin Timothy Callahan Tintin Tom Gauld Tomas Saraceno Transmetropolitan Ursula K. Le Guin Video Vija Celmins Warren Ellis Watchmen Wikileaks Will Eisner William Gibson Wine Writing X'ed Out XKCD

Entries in Jaq Chartier (2)

Friday
Mar182011

Art and Science: Analysis and the Grid

Close: Phil Glass 1977OK, let's get one thing clear at the outset. Art is not science, and science is not art. That may seem like a pretty banal point but it's one that gets violated a lot in the liminal space between them. It's not enough to take a pretty function and put it on a graph for it to be artwork. (I'm talking about you, fractals).

It's not enough to take an interesting discovery and put it on stage for it to be art. That goes doubly when the plot is overwhelmed by a ham-handed attempt to demonstrate a (controversial) interpretation of the science through 'non-linear' plotlines. (I'm talking about you, Copenhagen). If I want a great, shimmering example of the fallibility of reconstructed memory, Rashomon is the touchstone; Kurosawa's film has nothing whatever to do with quantum mechanics per se.

Art is a commentary on life, and art that takes science seriously has to be a comment on science, full of metaphor and instability for it to be fruitful and interesting. A lot of art in this space is more commentary on technology than science; I include most all of SF. Nothing wrong with that, of course, I love SF. But commenting on the methods and techniques of science is rather different than commenting on hyperdrives, artificial intelligence or gene hacking.

So then what would it be to comment on science? What are the hallmarks of science? It's too much for me to get into a lengthy treatise here on that problem, but for a start we can point to carefully controlled, repeatable testing; analysis into smaller, simpler parts; and mathematization. These processes lead to theory formation that leads to enhanced powers of prediction. When prediction breaks down, science returns to the drawing board with further analysis, testing or revised mathematical theorization.

That's science in a nutshell.

Who are some artists that comment most incisively on this method? A few who come to mind are, in the visual arts, Chuck Close, Jennifer Bartlett, Agnes Martin and Jaq Chartier, and in opera, Phil Glass and Robert Wilson's Einstein on the Beach.

Close: Self Portrait 1997Seurat (Detail)Close and Bartlett's work comes in a tradition of color and form analysis that goes back at least to the pointillist painters, most famously Georges Seurat. There are many ways to analyze form and color, but it's a comment on the science of optics and the physics of atoms to do so in terms of a more limited color palette and smaller dot-size. The large and complex is understood in terms of the small and simple.

Chuck Close is best known for his paintings of faces, done in very large, complex grids of dots. Note that Close often uses grids, not open canvas. A grid can be a comment on technology (e.g., the technology of the cathode ray tube or computer monitor), but it's also something that comes from mathematics, geometry, the gridded sheet of paper. A grid is a sectioning of the plane into a regular lattice. The sections can be counted and hence easily mathematized; an open canvas cannot so easily. A grid's analysis of space comments on the method of science.

Jennifer BartlettBartlett as well is known for her paintings on large, gridded panels. She analyzes painting into color, line, shape, and simple subjects. Simplifying subject matter is a hallmark of the scientific method of analysis; not in the sense that the scientist makes a subject more simple than it is, but rather that he or she tries to begin an analysis on the most tractable part of the problem.

Martin: Aspiration 1960Though she considered herself an expressionist, Agnes Martin's work is more directly minimalist: commentary on the grid itself and the color on which it lies. Personally, I find that the cold, Platonic purity of her canvases make them problematic as artwork; much of the most rigorous minimalism is that way, and it flirts with boredom. But there's more than a little of boredom in the obsessive accuracy in science.

Jaq Chartier (mentioned below) often uses the same grid, the same rigorously linear design, in her work. She adds another aspect of the scientific method: testing. Her pieces are in concept and execution test patterns of color bleed through a painted surface, and many of them, in particular her Sun Test series, include bleaching from solar exposure. In form I find her work reminiscent of the gridded surfaces of Close and Bartlett as much as they comment on scientific testing. It's the fruitful range of metaphor that makes her pieces particularly interesting.

Chartier Sun Test

Einstein on the BeachTo change gears, these artists bring to mind one work of artistic science commentary in the world of opera: Philip Glass and Robert Wilson's masterpiece, Einstein on the Beach. A work  that premiered in the mid-70s, Einstein is an expressionist, dreamlike meditation on the great scientist's work and legacy. There's no attempt at a linear plot, and very little narrative of any sort. The work is supported by Wilson's highly demanding stagecraft and Glass's minimalist musical score. Glass's music is particularly relevant to the present essay. Along with nonsense poetry and short passages, Glass's lyrics are filled with numbers and solfège symbols: beat and note. In the same way that the grid analyzes physical space, beat and note analyze musical time.

Of course, such rigorous analysis, repetitive and obsessive, threatens to bore. I've never found it that way in Einstein, though I know many have; instead I've found it intensely meditative. But again, so too can science be boring in practice. It isn't always accompanied by brilliant stagecraft.

This is by no means intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject, rather a few short thoughts on what comes to mind. I'd be interested in other ideas!

(Click on images for larger reproductions).

Saturday
Mar122011

March, 2011 Chelsea Artwalk

There are several shows in Chelsea that will be of interest to people with a more scientific bent. To start with, Jaq Chartier has a beautiful and very interesting installation at Morgan Lehman. She works with rows of inks, usually deeply saturated, from her time doing color tests for an acrylic paint company. Her work stands somewhere between art and science, resembling DNA gel electrophoresis or the result of a high-throughput assay procedure. The square ones also allude to Jennifer Bartlett's gridded panels, mentioned in the last Chelsea artwalk.

The problem some artists have when merging art and science is that one or the other gets short shrift. Sometimes it's the artistic merit that goes, and sometimes the science appears deeply misinterpreted. Chartier manages to lose nothing of artistic value: her paintings stand on their own as abstract works, whether or not one knows anything of the scientific processes to which she alludes, and coming from a background in color testing, the science comes through clearly as well.

These are some of the strongest works I've seen in a long time.

For works by a more established artist, there is an ethereally beautiful show of prints and drawings by Vija Celmins at Senior & Shopmaker. Celmins is best known for finely detailed reproductions of the night sky or seascapes. She also gives us hazy images of Saturn, and a beautiful etching of an Earth globe, in a 19th century style. Once again, her work is a seamless merging of art and science, in her case the science of sheer physical observation of the natural world. Her reproductions of the night sky capture the way it looks in a telescope better than any artist I know, but her pieces always retain enough of the artist's hand to make them breathtaking works in their own right.

In the last Chelsea Art Walk I mentioned works by Tara Donovan. She has another, larger piece at Pace now on view, a large, quasi-crystalline, mineralistic construction of linked and nested spheres, made out of folded, conical sections of mylar. It's an extraordinary piece, beautiful both from a distance and close-up. As you approach, the reflective properties of the mylar take over in each of the conical sections that make up the spheres. They take on an otherworldly, almost floral appearance.

A number of large, digitally enhanced color photos of Earth the planets and Sun make up a more plainly scientific show by Michael Benson at Hasted Kraeutler. It perhaps strays a bit too far from sheer artistic quality to be considered a great marriage of art and science, yet for all that the photos are impressive and beautiful, some of the best executed of their kind. They are great teaching material and would be fantastic in a planetarium or science center.

Finally there is a single artwork in Dario Robleto's show at D'Amelio-Terras: a print titled "Candles Un-burn, Suns Un-shine, Death Un-dies" that works as a Hubble deep-field view of the galaxies. In fact it's a digitally constructed image made up of stage lights from album covers. The rest of Robleto's work has a wonderful graphic sensibility, using juxtapositions of anonymized advertising iconography in interesting and beautiful ways. It's worth a look on its own.

(Click on any of the images for enlargements. As always, the linked gallery webpages will tend to have further information about the artists and exhibitions).